Glossary

A

Accessibility Features
The tools and supports that are available to all students, regardless of their disability or EL status. These tools are either built into the Test Delivery System (TDS) or provided by a test administrator for the paper edition of the test.
Accommodations
The tools and supports that are available to students with disabilities and English learners. Teams and educators respondible for developing Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and 504 plans must make decisions regarding accommodations, and these must be listed in the plan of each student.
Aggregation
The compilation of test result data in a report that provides average scores for a group of students, such as the students in a roster or school.
Alignment
The association between an item on a test and a content standard that identifies which skill or knowledge area that item is intended to measure.
Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC)
A term used to describe the different methods that can be used to help people with disabilities communicate with others. These methods can be used as either an alternative or a supplement to speech, and can include individual methods of sign and gestures, standardized signing, symbol systems, and complex electronic devices.
Annual Assessment Window
A designated time period each school year during which schools administer tests to students.
Appeal
A request to resolve a test impropriety (also known as a testing incident), which may interrupt the normal workflow of a test opportunity. Appeals are created and processed in TIDE.
Assessment
An online or paper test consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as a test.
Assessment Reports
Reports available in the Reporting system that provide detailed student performance data for a particular test taken by an individual student or group of students.
Assistive Technology
Any hardware or software that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a student with a disability.
Autonomous Single App Mode (ASAM)
A special feature available in some testing devices that allows that device to lock its focus onto a single application.

B

BRF File (BRF)
A Braille file type used to emboss test items containing only text or formatted tables.

C

Cambium Assessment, Inc. (CAI)
An education company owned by Cambium Learning Group that develops innovative online assessment applications, such as TDS and TIDE.
Chrome OS
An operating system developed and distributed by Google, which is supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Chromebook
A laptop running Chrome OS.
Cluster
A set of items or interactions within a single item that engages students in activity aligned to a specific standard.
Column Match
An item type that requires students to respond by matching together answer options that are listed in a set of columns.
Comma-Separated Values (CSV)
A type of file in which data are separated by commas. Some CAI systems allow users to create or modify data in bulk by uploading a CSV file.
Complexity
The level of cognitive demand expected for a student to correctly answer a test item.
Content
Used to refer to the the items and stimuli within a test, the media type within a stimulus, and the prompt and response area within an item.
Content Standard
The skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Context Menu Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear inside a menu and are available for individual items and stimuli.
Cut Score
A specific point on a test's score scale that distinguishes between two performance levels. Scores at or above that point are interpreted to mean something different from scores below that point. Cut scores can determine if a student's test score approaches expectations, meets expectations, exceeds expectations, etc.

D

Data Entry Interface (DEI)
A CAI system that allows educators to enter student performance data, such as a response or score, directly into a test form.
Device
Hardware that students may use in daily classroom instruction and to take tests, including, but not limited to, desktop computers, laptops, netbooks, tablets, and assistive technologies for students requiring accommodations.
Dimension
A type of scoring criterion in an item's rubric.
Disaggregation
The process by which performance data for a group of students, such as a roster or school, is broken down into data for the various sub-groups or demographic groups within that larger student group.
District Administrator (DA)
A CAI system user role representing an administrator for an entire district.
Domain
A category of content standards that measure a related set of skills or knowledge areas.
Drag-and-Drop Grid Item
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging a text or image object onto specified locations in a grid or image.
Duxbury Braille Translator
Accessibility software used to emboss BRF test items in a Braille test.

E

Edit Task Inline Choice (ETIC)
An item type that requires students to respond by filling in the blank in a sentence by selecting options from an inline drop-down list.
Eligibility Rules
Student attributes set up in TIDE that determine which tests a student will be able to take in TDS.
Embedded Support
Built-in tools and settings in the Student Testing Site that provide assistance in using the application to students testing with the accessibility features or accommodations.
End of Life (EOL)
The projected date on which CAI plans to end the Test Delivery System's support for an operating system version.
English as a Second Language (ESL)
A student whose native language is not English and who has difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language.
English Language Learner (ELL)
A student whose native language is not English and who has difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language.
Equation Response (EQ)
An item type that allows students to respond by clicking mathematical characters that appear in an on-screen keypad.
Errors of Measurement
Typically referred to as standard error of measurement. The amount or difference between a student’s actual score and the theoretical true score. The degree of inherent imprecision in student performance reports based on test content, administration, scoring, or examinee conditions.
Evidence-Based Selected Response (ESBR)
An item type that requires students to answer a multi-part question related to an accompanying passage or information presented in the stem.
Expiration Rules
The rules that determine how long it takes a test opportunity to expire when a student starts it without completing it. Students cannot make any additional changes to a test opportunity once it expires.

F

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
A federal law that protects students' privacy regarding education records and also provides parents with rights regarding their children's education records.
Fedora
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
Firewall (FW)
A network security system that monitors traffic and prevents unauthorized access to the network.
Force Quit
An action that test administrators may need to take to close the Secure Browser in the event that it becomes unresponsive.
Frequency-Distribution Report (FDR)
A report that shows the frequency or count of a particular score or outcome by student group or demographic.

G

Global Tools
Tools in the Student Testing Site that appear at the top of the screen and are available for an entire test segment.
Grade Level
The grade in which a student is enrolled.
Graph Item
An item type that requires students to respond by adjusting the heights or lengths of bars in a graph.
Grid Item (GI)
A type of item interaction that can offer several different ways for the student to interact with a grid area, such as dragging an object onto the grid canvas or plotting points on a graph.

H

Hot Spot
An item type that requires students to respond by clicking regions on an image, such as countries on a map.

I

Image Drag and Drop
An item type that requires students to respond by dragging text or image elements onto a background image.
Individual Student Report (ISR)
A report that provides detailed information about an individual student's performance on a particular assessment.
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
A written statement for each student with a disability that is developed, reviewed and revised to reflect the decisions made by an interdisciplinary team, including the parent and student when appropriate.
Interaction
A component of a test item that students can interact with, such as a list of options they can select from or a text box in which they type a response. A test item may include one or more individual interactions.
Invalidate a Test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that eliminates the test opportunity, which results in the student having no further opportunities for the test.
iOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
iPadOS
A mobile operating system developed and distributed by Apple, which is supported by CAI's Mobile Secure Browser.
Item
A scored question, exercise, or task on a test that students interact with to enter a response.

J

Job Access with Speech (JAWS)
A screen reader software designed to help vision-impaired people use computer applications.

K

Keyboard Command
A key or combination of keys students can press in order to perform an action in the Student Testing Site.
Kiosk Mode
A feature available in certain operating systems in which a device allows access only to a specific application, such as CAI's Secure Browser.

L

Limited English Proficiency (LEP)
A student whose native language is not English and who has difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language.
Linux
A family of free and open source operating systems, some of which are supported by CAI's Secure Browser.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A network that connects a group of computers that are in the same location.

M

Machine Scoring
Item scoring performed automatically by a computer.
Match Item (MI)
An item type that requires students to respond by matching answer options together.
Mobile Secure Browser (MSB)
The mobile version of CAI's Secure Browser. It is used on iPads (iPadOS and iOS) and Chromebooks.
Multiple Choice (MC)
An item type that requires students to select a single answer from a list of options.
Multiple Select (MS)
An item type that requires students to select one or more answer options from a list of options.

N

Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics (Nemeth Code)
A Braille code for encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly.

O

Operational
In student testing, this term refers to live testing, as distinct from practice testing. An operational assessment is one that is developed and administered at a specified time and whose scoring results are used for the purpose of meeting local, state, and/or federal requirements.
Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Options
The response choices to an item's stem from which students select an answer.

P

Paper Order
Also known as a materials order. An order for paper-and-pencil test materials, such as question books and answer sheets. Paper orders can be managed in TIDE.
Participation Rate
In student testing, the percentage of students within a particular group who took a test as compared to the total number of students in the group who could have taken the test.
Participation Report by SSID
A report available in TIDE that details the status for each test opportunity started by a particular student.
Permissive Mode
A Secure Browser setting that allows a student to use pre-approved hardware or software that would otherwise be blocked by the Secure Browser.
Personally Identifying Information (PII)
Information that could identify an individual person, such as a student's name and date of birth.
Plan and Manage Testing Report
A report available in TIDE that details all of a student’s test opportunities and the status of those test opportunities.
Portal
A website that provides access to CAI systems, training sites, tutorials, and other resources to all educators involved in the online assessment process.
Predictive Text Technology
A type of assistive technology that suggests words to students as they type responses to test items.
Prefetch Item Rule
A setting in TDS that queues up a certain number of test items as students progress through the test to ensure there are no delays in testing.
PreID Label
A label affixed to a student’s physical testing materials, such as a paper answer booklet.
Print Request
A TA Site feature in which students with the appropriate test settings may request printouts of test content, which the test administrator may approve.
PRN File (PRN)
A Braille file type used to emboss test items containing Nemeth code or tactile graphics.

R

Re-open a test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reopens a test opportunity that was completed, invalidated, or expired.
Reporting Category
A topic or skill area within a test. In the Reporting system, some reports may allow users to view performance data by reporting category.
Reporting System
A CAI system that provides comprehensive student performance reports on assessments and allows educators to hand-score some test items.
Reset a Test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that allows the student to restart a test opportunity (removing all responses on the test), or allows the data entry operator to restart the data entry process.
Restore a Test Appeal
An appeal created in TIDE that reverses a test reset, restoring the student responses that were on the test when the reset was processed.
Roster
A group of students associated with an educator. Rosters typically represent classes, but may also represent other groups at the preference of the roster creator.
Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.

S

School Test Coordinator (STC)
A CAI system user role representing a test coordinator for an individual school.
School Year (SY)
The academic year, given as a range (for example, 2020- 2021, 2020-21, or 2020 to 2021).
Scoring Rubric
A set of criteria explaining how an item should be scored and what precisely merits a full- or partial-credit response. The rubric may also include an exemplar of a valid response.
Screen Magnifier Technology
A type of assistive technology that enlarges the content displayed on the computer screen in order to assist students with visual impairments.
Screen Reader
An application that transforms the text displayed on a computer screen into synthesized speech for vision-impaired users.
Screensaver Mode
A feature in the TA Site that allows test administrators to temporarily hide any sensitive student data that appears on screen.
Secure Browser (SB)
The CAI browser through which all operational tests are administered. The Secure Browser provides a secure and user-friendly environment for students to complete tests while preventing access to any prohibited tools or applications.
Secure Student Identifier (SSID)
A unique number or alphanumeric code assigned to a student for identification purposes.
Simulation (SIM)
An item type that requires students to set the parameters of an interactive animation and extrapolate data in a table.
Single Sign-On (SSO)
A shared component in CAI systems that allows users to use a single set of login credentials to access every CAI system.
Standard
The specific skill or area of knowledge that a test item is intended to measure.
Stem
The question or prompt in a test item to which the students must respond.
Stimulus
A reading passage or multimedia resource in a test that students must review in order to respond to a set of associated items.
Student Data File
A spreadsheet file that lists comprehensive test result data for a custom combination of tests and students, which users can generate and export in the Reporting system.
Student Testing Site
The component of the Test Delivery System (TDS) where students can take tests. Both practice and operational Student Testing Sites are available. The operational site is only accessible through the applicable Secure Browser for test administration.

T

TA Interface
A component of CAI's Test Delivery System used by test administrators to proctor online test sessions through either the practice or operational TA Site. Also known as the Test Administrator Interface.
Table Input (TI)
An item type that requires students to respond by entering information in a table.
Take a Test (TAT)
A Microsoft application that allows students to take a test securely in Windows. The Take a Test app may be used as an alternative to the CAI Secure Browser.
Teacher (TE)
A CAI system user role, typically one that is associated with one or more rosters.
Test
An online or paper form consisting of one or more items that assess a student's skills or area of knowledge. Also known as an assessment.
Test Administration Certification Course (TA Certification Course)
An online course required for all potential test administrators in order to prepare them for use of CAI's Test Delivery System.
Test Administration Site (TA Site)
A component of CAI's Test Delivery System used by test administrators to proctor online test sessions through either the practice or operational TA Site. Also known as the Test Administrator Interface.
Test Completion Rate Report
A report available in TIDE that summarizes the number and percentage of students who have started or completed a test.
Test Delivery System (TDS)
A set of CAI systems used by educators to proctor online test sessions or by students to complete online assessments. TDS includes the TA Site/TA Interface, the Student Testing Site, and the Data Entry Interface.
Test Impropriety
Any action or violation, whether deliberate or accidental, that could invalidate a test. Also known as a testing incident or test irregularity.
Test Information and Distribution Engine (TIDE)
A CAI system that allows educators to manage user and student information. Functionality includes student registration, student accommodations setting, and materials ordering.
Test Label
The name of an assessment as displayed in CAI systems.
Test Opportunity
An individual chance for a student to attempt a test. A test may allow for one or more opportunities per eligible student.
Test Presentation
The language in which a test is displayed to the student.
Test Session
An event created by test administrators in the TA Site in which they select one or more tests and approve students to take those tests in the Student Testing Site.
Test Status Code Report
A report available in TIDE that displays all the non-participation codes for a test administration.
Test Ticket
A piece of paper that includes an individual student's username for logging in to the TDS.
Test Timeout
When a student's test pauses automatically after a certain period of inactivity.
Test Window (TW)
The date range in which a particular test is available for administration to eligible students.
Text-to-Speech (TTS)
An embedded support available in the Student Testing Site that reads aloud text content within a test.
Tiger Max Embosser
Accessibility software used to emboss PRN test items in a Braille test.
Tutorial
A tool within the Student Testing Site that plays a video demonstrating how students interact with a particular item type.

U

Ubuntu
A Linux distribution supported by CAI's Linux Secure Browser.
User
An educator who is able to access and use a CAI system in accordance with their assigned user role. Accounts for users can be created in TIDE.
User Role
In CAI systems, a role associated with a user's email address that determines which systems they may access and which permissions they have within that system.

V

Voice Pack (VP)
A software tool for emulating speech. Voice packs must be present in testing devices for any students who will use text-to-speech (TTS).